What, specifically, is globalisation?
What, specifically, is globalisation? To understand it, Pietra Rivoli, at Georgetown University in the United States, followed all steps in the life of his T-shirt “made in China”. And discovered that international trade has less to do with neo-liberal competition history, politics and all possible maneuvers to avoid the law of the market!
Done two hundred years that the Texans dominated world production of cotton. Supremacy due to a rapid mechanization and the use of fertilizers (making it a very polluting industry), well organized marketing, in a virtuous circle linking public expenditure on research, firms and universities. And for billions of subsidies: big texan cotton producer is generally not too many worries, receiving public money to protect it from fluctuations in the world price of climatic hazards, and to help to repay its loans.Before being very mechanized, its production was slaves, then permission to use Mexican seasonal. A model that is now more the family pension than the innovative entrepreneur…
The transformation of the cotton T-shirt is far away
The transformation of the cotton T-shirt is far away, to be mechanized: half of the added value produced is still by labour. Cotton hand so where there’s arms, as in China. Young girls sort, cut, and sew in a work taylorized excessive, poorly paid and supervised by government rules that allow, as nicely said Pietra Rivoli, “an unlimited supply of submissiveness”. However, she wondered, can we refuse the Chinese to followthe same path as we? American and European 19th-century capitalism was also terrible, but workers have fought and obtained the rights. It will be the same in China. Meanwhile, by a trick of history, young women interviewed, even exploited, say that this work has pulled up to the family rural right-of-way and they earn money which they do what they want. Rivoli thus advises the otherglobalists don’t condemn this system, but to fight for change towards a recognition of human rights and labour.
Once the ready T-shirt, back to the United States. There again, it is far from free andundistorted competition! The remade author history of textile U.S. protectionism, ofrestrictions on exports “voluntary” requested the Japanese at the end of World WarII, to the multi-fibre agreement ended in January 2005… and that Europe and the United States are trying to control the effects the establishment of quotas for imports.
Once bought, worn, worn, the T-shirt has not yet finished his life. Given to the Salvation Army or to any other charity, he was ransomed by thousands of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Which will sort. The more worn, approximately 30%, end up in rags in plants (especially the all-white, more efficient). The one with the Rolling Stones may be sold to a shop for fans. Anyone who wears a Mickey and other hallmarks of American culture will leave among Japanese who are crazy.
But the real business is to transfer them vintage… markets in Africa. Worn clothing are an important part of U.S. exports in Tanzania, Benin, Togo… Male clothes are themost popular because more rare: 90% of what throw women is still relatively goodquality while the men who buy less clothing and wear them longer, only half is resalable. History, society, political, here are the main determinants of global trade, concludes Pietra Rivoli, in surprised that the debate has been cornered by economists!